Chronic Kidney Disease in Children: Recent Update

Kwanchai Pirojsakul, Nisha Mathews, Mouin G. Seikaly*
Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Children’s Medical Center of Dallas, USA

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© Pirojsakulet al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, TX 75390-9063, USA; E-mail:


The incidence of end stage of renal disease (ESRD) in US children age 0-19 years is 12.9 per million/year (2012). The economic and social burden of diagnosing, treating and preventing chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children and adults remains substantial. Advances in identifying factors that predict development of CKD and its progression, as well as advances in the management of co-morbid conditions including anemia, cardiovascular disease, growth, mineral and bone disorder, and neurocognitive function are discussed. Despite recent reports from retrospective registry data analysis and multi-center prospective studies which have significantly advanced our knowledge of CKD, and despite advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of CKD much work remains to be done to improve the long term outcome of this disease.

Keywords: Anemia, bone disorder, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, hypertension, neurocognitive deficit, proteinuria, growt.