Urinary Tract Infection in Children: An Update

Finnell S.M.E*
Department of Pediatrics, Section for Children’s Health Services Research, and Ryan White Center for Pediatric Infectious Disease, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA

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© S.M.E. Finnell; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Children’s Health Services Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, HITS Building, Rm 1020B, 410 West 10th St., Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA; Tel: 317-278-0552; Fax: 317-278-0456; E-mail:


The 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI):Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of the Initial UTI in Febrile Infants and Children 2-24 Months guideline addressed “areas for research” identifying multiple areas where evidence at the time of the publication was lacking. This review discussed the evidence development in those identified areas. In this paper, I will review the latest literature on UTI in children and focus on those areas of research suggested in these guidelines. I will also summarize the related literature since September 2011.

Literature related to first UTI in children have contributed important new knowledge since the publication of the 2011 AAP guideline; 1) additional research has failed to clarify the relationship between childhood UTI and adult renal function. 2) High grade vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) has been established as a clear risk factor for scarring, but the condition is rare. Abnormal ultrasound, and fever in combination with non-E coli infection are other important predictors of scarring. 3) Antimicrobial prophylaxis appear to decrease UTI recurrences, but a large amount of antibiotics has to be administrated to prevent one UTI and the prevention works best in children with low grade, not high grade, VUR, 4) cranberry juice may prevent UTI, and 5) new, less aggressive guidelines, seem not to have negative consequences for pediatric patients measured as missed true pathology. Future guidelines would benefit from incorporating this new information.

Keywords: Chronic kidney disease, cystourethrogram, renal and bladder ultrasound, Urinary tract infection, renal scarring, voiding.