Aims and Scope

The Open Urology & Nephrology Journal is an Open Access online journal, which publishes research articles, reviews/mini-reviews, letters, guest edited single topic issues and images that are unique or highly illustrative accompanied by a brief one-paragraph description of relevant clinical information in all areas of experimental and clinical research in the fields of urology and nephrology, renal replacement therapy (dialysis and transplantation), transplantation, radiology, endourology, prostatic diseases, nocturnal enuresis, pathology, erectile dysfunction.

The Open Urology & Nephrology Journal, a peer-reviewed journal, is an important and reliable source of current information on developments in the field. The emphasis will be on publishing quality papers rapidly and making them freely available to researchers worldwide.

Recent Articles

Correlation Between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver and Chronic Kidney Disease

Hasyim Kasim, St. Rabiul Zatalia, Haerani Rasyid, Syakib Bakri, Muhammad L. Parewangi, Fardah Akil, Arifin Seweng


NAFLD is an independent risk factor of CKD. CKD prevalences in NAFLD subjects are two times higher than non-NAFLD. The aim of this study is to know the correlation between NAFLD and CKD.


Cross-sectional study was conducted on patients who held Abdominal USG in Wahidin Sudirohusodo & UNHAS hospital from January to December 2017. NAFLD subjects are male and female (18-60 years) who met NAFLD criteria and wanted to participate, non-NAFLD as control subjects. NAFLD is fat accumulation in hepatocyte without a history of alcohol consumption or other etiology of chronic liver disease. CKD definition and classification were based on KDIGO 2012. P value <0.05 was considered to be significant.


From the study period, we found 134 subjects (67 NAFLD subjects and 67 non-NAFLD subjects). Correlation analysis between NAFLD and eGFR showed that NAFLD subjects had more proportion of eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2 than non-NAFLD subjects (40.3% vs 16.4%, p=0.002). NAFLD subjects significantly had more proportion of CKD Grade 3 than non-NAFLD subjects (37.3% vs 9%) while non-NAFLD subjects had more proportion of CKD Grade 1 and 2 than NAFLD subjects (56.7% vs 38.8% dan 26.9% vs 20.9%)(p=0.001). Correlation analysis between NAFLD and proteinuria did not show significant results (p=0.051).


NAFLD subjects correlated with CKD events compared with non-NAFLD subjects.

February 12, 2020

Editor's Choice

Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease and Its Determinants in Rural Pondicherry, India-A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

Ravi Kumar P, Amol Dongre, R. Muruganandham, Pradeep Deshmukh, D. Rajagovindan


The burden of CKD is on the rise globally and in India. There are scarce population based studies based in rural industrialized settings in India and elsewhere.


To find out the prevalence and determinants of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) among adults in rural Pondicherry, India


It was a community-based cross-sectional study in 13 villages of a Primary Health Centre in rural Pondicherry. A representative sample of 422 adults more than or equal to 50 years of both genders was selected by population proportional to size methods. All the participants were screened by SCORED questionnaire to get the potential cases of CKD. We did serum creatinine, urine examination, blood pressure and anthropometric measurement for the potential cases. CKD was diagnosed by estimation of glomerular filtration rate and presence of protienuria. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science version 24. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of SMCMCH, Pondicherry.


The prevalence of CKD was found to be 24.2% in the study sample of respondents 50 years or more. Most (73.5%) of the CKD cases were at stage 2, Stage 3a had 15% and stage 3b had 2% of the cases. The determinants of CKD were (60-69 years, PR: 2.36,CI:1.36-4.07), poor nutrition(underweight, overweight and obesity)poor nutritional status (underweight:PR: 2.26,CI:1.05-4.89), (overweight:PR: 2.19,CI:1.06-4.52), (obese:PR: 2.13 CI: 1.13-4.01) and presence of at least one chronic co-morbidity(PR:5.85,CI:1.38-24.78). Majority of the patients in the CKD group had minimal proteinuria 87.25%. And 42.15% of the CKD group had no diabetes mellitus or hypertension.

Conclusion and Recommendation:

Considering the higher prevalence of CKD in the study area, targeted screening of adult population should be undertaken as means of early detection, diagnosis, treatment and follow up of at-risk individuals to prevent further progression of CKD. Further research is required to look at the aetiology of CKD.

June 30, 2019

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